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Johnson noted in his memoirs, "Generation after generation many of the families to which these defective people belonged had been paupers, in or out of the asylum; their total number and the proportion of feeble minded among them steadily increasing as time went on." Alexander Johnson, (March, 1896), 7-8 (B050916). Under Butler, the first reference to sterilization as a way to prevent insanity and "defectives" has been located in an official state document. Julius Paul wrote several works on sterilization in the United States.

Board of State Charities, (June, 1900), 90 (B050919). In an effort to reduce reproduction by the feeble-minded, Governor J. Goodrich spoke about Marshall's failure to enforce the law in a speech to the Indiana General Assembly. He calculated Indiana sterilized 2, 424 people up until 1963.

There are several other sources that record the number sterilizations that occurred over a short period of time as well. Sharp of the Indiana State Reformatory claimed in a 1909 pamphlet to have sterilized around 500 inmates from 1899 to 1909. Official numbers from this time period are difficult to find, and Osgood's tally has not been verified.

These operations took place before and after the 1907 law that legalized the procedure. From the passage of the 1931 law until May 1934, 141 persons were sterilized under the 1931 law. Potter Harshman, "Medical and Legal Aspects of Sterilization in Indiana, " reprinted from the held at New York City, May 26-May 29, 1934 (B050858).

(5) 1927 law reinstated sterilization, adding court appeals.

(6) Approximately 2,500 people in state custody were sterilized. Bowen approved repeal of all sterilization laws 1974; (8) by 1977, related restrictive marriage laws repealed. Mc Culloch, studied a group of families around Indianapolis he called the Tribe of Ishmael, using records dating back to 1840.

Professor Alexandra Minna Stern of the University of Michigan estimated around 2, 000 people were sterilized under Indiana law.

was the Nazi German’s earliest euthanasia program, which targeted physically and mentally disabled people, chronically ill people and psychiatrically-labeled people for killing, characterizing them as ‘useless eaters’.

Estimates are that approximately 300,000 such people were exterminated between 19.

Harshman was a state psychiatrist at the Fort Wayne State School. (9) Approved by Governor Bowen on April 21, 1975, Public Law 111 amended the 1905 marriage law.

This report provided the number of people sterilized between the passage of the 1931 law and the date of the paper presented by Harshman in New York City. The 1975 law removed language that prohibited the issuance of a license to people "under guardianship as a person of unsound mind" and men who in the past 5 years had spent time in a county asylum or home for indigent persons.

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